Chemistry is a branch of science that deals with the structure, composition and change of matter. Chemistry deals with topics such as properties of atoms, formation of chemical bonds that create chemical compounds. Also it addresses the interaction of various substances via molecular forces to give matter is general properties. It also deals with the interaction between two or more substances that mix through chemical reactions to form different substances.
Chemistry is also known as central science as it links other natural sciences including biology, physics and geology together. There are essential concepts that make up chemistry, these are:
Thisis a basic part of modern chemistry. An atom contains a dense core known as an atom nucleus which is surrounded by a small space known as the electron cloud. The nucleus consists of the negative charged neutrons and the positive charged protons. When protons and the neutrons come together, they form nucleons.
The electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons that surround the nucleus. For neutral atoms, the positively charged protons balance with the negatively charged neutrons. Neutrons in a single nucleus are denser than an electron.
From a chemistry point of view, matter can be defined as anything that contains mass at its stable condition, volume and is made up of particles. Particles that make up matter also have mass at their stable positions. However not all particles have mass, photon is one of those particles that have no mass at rest. Matter can be a mixture of particles and substances or chemical substances obtained as a result of a chemical reaction.
An element is any pure substance that is composed of a single atom. Elements are characterized by the number of protons they hold in their nucleus. The number of protons is also known as the molecular number and is denoted by symbol Z. the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in a nucleus is known as the mass number.
Mass numbers may not be the same in the same elements despite the atomic number being the same. These kinds of elements which have the same atomic numbers but different mass numbers are known as the isotopes. Carbon is a good example of an isotope; it has 6 protons in its single nuclei but an atom of carbon may have a mass number that ranges between 12 and 13.
All chemical elements are well arranged in a periodic table based on their atomic number. The periodic table is then arranged in groups, rows, columns and periods.
A compound is a chemical that is purely composed of more than one element. Compounds follow a standard nomenclature system and are named following this system.
It is the smallest and also indivisible part of a chemical substance that contains its own unique set of chemical substances. This unique set is that it has the potential to undergo a unique set of chemical reaction with other substances.
The history of chemistry can be traced back into the early civilization era of the Indians, Babylonians and Egyptians, where they used their chemistry knowledge in pottery, iron smelting and preparation of dyes. Following some discoveries and introduction of new theories, chemistry has evolved at a high rate to the chemistry being studied in different levels of schooling today.
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